LIFE (n.)

LEBEN (deu.) · LEBHAFTIGKEIT (deu.) · LEVEN (nld.) · VIE (fra.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
LEVEN (nld.) · NAAR HET LEVEN (nld.) · NATUREL (fra.) · VIE (fra.)
SWAN, Claudia, « Ad vivum, naer het leven, from the life: defining a Mode of Representation », Word & Image, 11/4, 1995, p. 353-372.

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CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

5 sources
16 quotations

Quotation

Of the powers of a Painter and Painting
{In reference to Philosophy and Poetry And Painting.}
Philosophers, divide the universe (which is their subject) into three Regions ; Cælestiall, Aeriall, Terrestriall.
So the
POETS, (who imitate humain Life, in measured lines,) have lodged themselves, in three Regions of Mankind ; Court, Citty, and Country.
So the
PAINTERS, (whose Art is to imitate Nature) performe it in three severall Qualities ; Design, Proportion, and Colour.
{Into three sorts.} And these, into three sorts of
Painting ; Prospective, (or Landskip), Historicall, and Life.
Prospective ; a wonderfull freedome, and liberty, to draw, even, what you list, so various is Nature in that.
Historicall ; respects due Proportions and figures.
Life ; only the Colour.
In each of these ; you must have dependency upon all the
other, but necessarily, on each in particular.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Of the Parts of a Piece
{Five Principa parts in a Picture.} In a
PICTURE from Nature, there are five Principall parts..
 
1.
Invention or Historicall Argument.
2.
Proportion, Symmetry.
3.
Colour, with Light or Darknesse.
4.
Motion, or Life, and their Action and Passion.
5.
Disposition, or œconomicall placing, or disposing, or ordering the work.
The
four first, are observed in all sorts of Pieces.
 
Disposition only in those Pictures, that have many figures ; not to appear mingle-mangle ; but, in all and every part of the Piece, to observe a decent comlinesse, or grace, in a mutuall accord, of all five.

motion

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

{Likenesse, not to be compared} But the worke of Art, is not singly in the Similitude or likenesse to the Life, (as common judgement will have it) but in the Symmetry  ; which in truth, proceeds from someskill in the Artizan’s surpassing Art.
{To Symmetry} It was distinguished by that excellent
Painter. A Boy holding a cluster of Grapes so like, that deceived the Birds, and yet not deterred by the shape of the Lad ; which therefore being an exception to the excellencie of the Piece, the Painter put out the Grapes, (though most like,) but reserved the Boy (for his Symmetry,) as the better esteem of the Art ; not understood by ordinary capacities.
{And therefore Naked Bodies hard to Paint.} You shall hardly find an
Artist, very excellent in a naked body, where true Symmetry is expected ; and therefore the ancient skill of the Græcians, sildome apparelled any. A timorous Painter, excuses his weaknesse, by covering the body, with a muffled Mantle.
{Defining Lines, what ?} The
Artizans call this proportion, the designing lines, Scatches, the first draught, and so a second and third, before you Paint them ; {A Cut.} which stroaks, by those that have insight in Art, are esteemed of high value ; for by these first draughts, the true force and undisguised Lineaments of Nature, do ravish the contemplation ; wherein the thought of a studious Artificer is perfectly evidenced.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Of Action and Passion.
{4. Action and Passion.} The next observation, is out of which,
Life and Motion doth result : It shews no Action or Passion in a Piece, barely upright, looking forward ; the Armes hanging down, the feet close together, and so seems unmoveable, and stiff.
{How to be expressed} In lineall
Pieces, there may be a deceitfull similitude of Life and Motion, and statues may seem to live and breathe but coloured Pictures shew a lively force in the severall effects, and properties of Life and Spirit.
{And to be improved} To be well acquainted with
Nature, Manner, guize and behaviour ; as to paint a Man, angry or sad ; joyfull earnest ; or idle ; all passions to be proper to the figure : […]. Indeed the severall postures of the head, describe the Numbers of passions ; […]. In a word, each severall member or part of the body, either of themselves, or in reference of some other part, expresses the passions of the mind, as you may easily observe in the Life.
[…].
{By example of Titian’ Pieces.} I have seen a piece of
Tytian’s : A Child in the Mothers Lap playing with a Bird ; so round and pleasing, it seem’s a doubt whether a Sculpture or Painting ; whether Nature or Art, made it ; the mother smiles and speaks to : the child starts, and answers.
{And of
Palma’s Piece.} Another of Palma’s ; a speaking Piece indeed. The young Damsell brought for Old Davids Bedfellow ; all the company in Passion and Action : some in admiration of her beauty, others in examining her features, which so please the good Old Man, that in some Extasie of passion, he imbraces her which her humility admits, yet with a silent modesty as best became her, only to be dumb and so suffer.
[…].
[...] And so have we done with an Example of all in One : For
 
                       Invention
allures the mind.
                       Proportion, attracts the Eyes.
                       Colour ;
delights the Fancie.
                      
Lively Motion, stirs up our Soul.
                      
Orderly Disposition, charmes our Senses.
 
{Conclude a rare Picture.} These produce gracefull
Comliness, which makes one fairer then fair ; […].
This Grace is the close of all, effected by a familiar facility in a free and quick spirit of a bold and resolute Artificer ; not to be done by too much double
diligence, or over doing ; a careless shew, hath much of Art.

Sanderson reprend ici un passage d'une lettre de Sir Henry Wotton au Marquis de Buckingham, datant du 2 décembre 1622. Dans cette dernière, Sir H. Wotton mentionne l'achat d'une Vierge à l'Enfant de Titien et d'un David et Bethsabée exécuté par Palma le jeune (voir à ce propos HARD, Frederick, 1939, p. 230).

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

The second Division by Landskips : The Tablet.
{Tablet for Landskip.} […].
Green, of all Colours is most delightfull to the Eye. Not in all Art of Painting such variety of Colour, more pleasing then is the Prospect of a well-wrought Landskip ; especially when your ingenious Industry hath already rendred you a Master of Art and contemplation. {Landskip after the Life, the way to draw it.} If you draw a Prospect from the Life ; Take your Station upon the rize of ground, or top of an Hill, where you shall have a large Horizon ; and skore your Tablet into three divisions downwards, from the top to the bottome, set your face directly opposite to the midst of your Horizon, and keeping your body fixed, Observe what is comprehended directly before your eyes, and draw that into forme upon your Tablet in the middle Division.
[…].
And as all things appear in
Distance and Truth, Proportion and Colour, so be carefull to express them ; […]. So then, the Dutch in composing a Piece of Prospect, of their own Fancie and Invention, for want of the Life most grosly erre in Proportion, Distance and Colour. Now for the want of the Life and Nature, if you will adventure on your fancie ; Go to work this way.
I cannot prescribe, how to order your light, in a piece of Landskip by the Life ; for according to the place, as you look North, or Southward, East, or West-ward, as the time of the day and the Sun’s declination, so must you order your shadows as they appear. But in all working of Painting by Fancie, let your light descend from your left, to your right hand : So will it appear upon the work, from the right to the left, the more gracefull. […].

École espagnole
École italienne
École néerlandaise

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

It is reported then that Michael Angelo upon a time gave this observation to the Painter Marius de Scina his Schollar, that he should alwayes make a Figure Pyramidal, Serpent like, and multiplyed by One Two and Three, in which precept (in my Opinion) the whole Mystery of the Art consisteth, for the greatest Grace and Life that a Picture can have, is, that it express motion ; which the Painters call the Spirit of a Picture. Now there is no Form so fit to express this Motion, as that of the Flame of Fire, which according to Aristotle, and the other Philosophers is an Element most active of all others, because the Forme of the Flame thereof is most apt for Motion, for it hath a Conus or sharp Point wherewith it seemeth to divide the Aire that so it may ascend to his proper Sphere, so that a Picture having this forme will be most beautifull.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Of the Vertue and Efficacy of Motion.


It is generally confessed of all Men, that all such
Motions in Pictures, as do most neerly resemble the Life, are exceeding pleasant, and contrarywise those that which do farthest dissent from the same, are void of all gracious Beauty, committing the like discord in Nature, which untuned strings do in an instrument. Neither do these motions thus lively imitating Nature in Pictures, breed only an Eye-pleasing contentment, but do also performe the self same effects, which the natural do, for as he which laugheth, mourneth, or is otherwise effected, doth naturally move the beholders to the self same passion, of mirth or sorrow, so a picture artificially expressing the true natural motions, will (surely) procure laughter when it laugheth, pensiveness when it is grieved &c. […], All which points are (in truth) worthy of no less admiration then those miracles of the antient Musicians, who with the variety of their melodious harmony, were wont to stir Men up to wrath and indignation, love, warr, […]. 
But to return thither were I left, I am of Opinion that insomuch as these Motions are so Potent in affecting our Minds, when they be most artifcially counterfeited, we ought for our bettering in the knowledge thereof, to propose unto us the example of Leonard Vincent above all others : Of whom, it is reported, that he would never express any motion in a Picture, before he had first carefully beheld the Life, to the end he might come as neer the same, as was possible : whereunto afterwards joyning Art, his Pictures surpassed the Life.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Of the Necessity of Motion.


The order of the
place requireth, that I should consequently speak of Motion it self, namely with what Art the Painter ought to give Motions best fitting his Pictures, which is nothing else but a correspondency to the nature of the proportion of the forme and matter thereof, and herein consisteth the whole spirit and life of the Art, which the Painters call sometimes the fury, sometimes the grace, and sometimes the excellency of the Art, for hereby they express an evident distinction between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and the learned, the sad and the merry, and (in a Word) discover all the several passions and Gestures which Mans Body is able to perform, which here we term by the name of Motions, for the more significant expressing of the Mind by an outward and bodily demonstration, so that by this means inward motions and affections may be as well, (or rather better) signified as by their speech, which is wrought by the proper operations of the Body, […]. 
Now the perfect knowledge of this motion, is (as hath been shewed) accounted the most difficult part of the art, and reputed as a divine gift. Insomuch, as herein alone consisteth the comparison between Painting and Poetry, for as it is required in a Poet, that besides the excellency of his wit, he should moreover be furnished with a certain propension and inclination of will, inciting and moving him to versity, (which the antient called the fury of Apollo and the Muses) so likewise a Painter ought, together with those natural parts which are required at his hands, to be furnished with a natural dexterity and inborn flight of expressing the principal motions, even from his cradle ; otherwise it is a very hard (if not impossible) matter, to obtain to the absolute perfection of this Art.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Quotation

Of a Graceful Posture.


The second thing in good Pictures is their
graceful Posture and Proper Actions ; that is, that the true and natural Motion of every thing be expressed in the Life and Spirit of it, that is, to quicken the Life by Art ; as in a King, to express the greatest Majesty by putting or designing him in such a Graceful posture, that may move the Spectators with Reverence to behold him. […]. So in all your Draughts the Inward Affections and Dispositions of the Mind may be most lively exprest in the Outward Action and Gesture of the Body. Now to attain to the Knowledge of this, you ought most diligently to observe the Works of several Famous Masters, and also to follow their Examples, who were used to delight themselves in beholding the Eyes of Private Murtherers, the Actions and Carriages of Wrestlers, and those that fought at Cuffs ; to observe the Actions of Stage-Players, the Inticing Allurements of Curtizans ; and for Thieves that are led to Execution, to mark the Contracting of their Brows, the Motions of their Eyes, and the Carriage of their whole Bodies, to the end they may express them to the Life in their Drawings and Works.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Of Looseness in Drawing.


The third thing Excellent in a Good Draught is
Loosness, that is, that the Body be not made Stiff in any part, but every Joynt must have its proper Bendings, so as it may with the greater Life express the Intention, that the Figure may not seem lame and the Joynts stiff, as if they were not pliable or capable of Bending ; but every Joynt and Limb may have its proper freeness and looseness, according as it may best sute with and become the Posture in which the Figure is set.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Friend,
            When a Painter has acquired any Excellency in
Desinging, readily and strongly ; What has he to do next ?
                        Traveller,
            That is not half his Work, for then he must begin to mannage his
Colours, it being particularly by them, that he is to express the greatness of his Art. ’Tis they that give, as it were, Life and Soul to all that he does ; without them, his Lines will be but Lines that are flat, and without a Body, but the addition of Colours makes that appear round ; and as it were out of the Picture, which else would be plain and dull. ’Tis they that must deceive the Eye, to the degree, to make Flesh appear warm and soft, and to give an Air of Life, so as his Picture may seem almost to Breath and Move.
                        Friend,
            Did ever any Painter arrive to that Perfection you mention ?
                        Traveller,
            Yes, several, both of the
Antient and Modern Painters. Zeuxis Painted Grapes, so that the Birds flew at them to eat them. Apelles drew Horses to such a likeness, that upon setting them before live Horses, the Live ones Neighed, and began to kick at them, as being of their own kind. And amongst the Modern Painters, Hannibal Carache, relates to himself, That going to see Bassano at Venice, he went to take a Book off a Shelf, and found it to be the Picture of one, so lively done, that he who was a Great Painter, was deceived by it. The Flesh of Raphael’s Pictures are so Natural, that this seems to be Alive. And so do Titians Pictures, who was the Greatest Master for Colouring that ever was, having attained to imitate Humane Bodies in all the softness of Flesh, and beauty of Skin and Complexion.

soul

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
EFFET PICTURAL → trompe-l’œil
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

Among the many Operations of Mysterious Nature, the Intellectual Part of Man hath no equal : Among the multifarious Productions of Man’s Understanding, the Art of LIMNING is by none excelled ; whether we consider the Grandeur of Spirit therein expressed, or the Ingenious Delight thereby acquired. What Ray of the Great Creator’s Image is more conspicuous in the Soul of Man, than that of Intense Desire to produce Creatures of his own ? And wherein is that Inclination so compleatly answered, as by Delineating the Workmanship of God in Artificial Resemblances contrived and wrought by his proper Wit ? Nor can any Satisfaction equal what is derived from the Perfection of these Designs. Are the Proportions exact ? How strongly do they attract the Eye ? Be the Shadowings accurate ? How strangely do they affect the Mind ? But if the Artist hath stoln so much of Promethean Fire as to add the Excellency of Life to well-disposed Lineaments, representing the Native Air and sprightly Gesture of the Person in vive : How unspeakably doth he gratify both ?

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

SECT. I. Of Actions or Gestures.
These are those that most nearly resemble the life, be it either in laughing, grieving, sleeping, fighting, wrastling, running, leaping, and the like.
Amongst the Ancients, famous for lively motion and gesture,
Leonard Vincent deserves much, whose custom was to behold clowns, condemned persons, and did mark the contracting of their brows, the motions of their eyes and whole bodies ; and doubtless it cannot but be very expedient for an Artist in this kind to behold the variety of exercises, that discovers various actions, where the motion is discovered between the living and the dead, the fierce and the gentle, the ignorant and learned, the sad and the merry.
John de Bruges was the first inventer of Oyl-painting, that deserv’d excellently in this particular.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → expression des passions
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

Bring all your Work together to an equal roundness [ndr : lors de la première séance de pose d’un portrait en miniature], and give perfection to no particular part at this time, but view your object well, and see how near you hit the Life, not only in seeming likeness, but in roundness, boldness of posture, colouring, and such like.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

He [ndr : Cimon de Cleonen] was the First bold and daring Man that took Courage to adventure into the Ocean of this ART [ndr : la peinture], that made many remarkable Discoveries of the incognita thereof, and left the Way open and fairly obvious to all his Followers ; for he enriched it with such a Variety of Embellishments, that in him first it began to have some Form of itself, and arrive to a competent Perfection ; what in their Paintings was Dead and Stiff, he gave Motion and Life to by his Skill, that he attained to in the Art of Fore-shortenings, turning the Faces of his Figures several Ways, either looking Upward, Backward, or Downward ; and by his Kowledge in the various Motions of the Limbs and Joints, and Muscling of the whole Body, which he was the first that attained and taught, what before either they knew nothing at all of Drapery, or, however, but some very unpleasant, flat and startch’d Way, he rectify’d, and, as Pliny tells us, taught a true and natural sort of Drapery, and the proper Plaiting and Foldings of all sorts of Garments.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → action et attitude

Quotation

Apelles himself was so ingenuous to own so great a Proficiency therein, as might seem to add Confirmation, while in the Disposition, or Ordinance, he modestly yielded to Amphion ; in the Measures, or Proportions, he subscribed to Aschepiodorus ; and of Protogenes was wont to say, in all Points he was equal to him, if not above him ; but after all, there was yet one Thing wanting in them all, which was instar omnium, or, however, the Beauty and Life of all, which he only ascribed, and was proud in being the sole Master of himself, viz. his Venus by the Greeks, named ΧΑΡΙΣ a certain peculiar Grace, sometimes called the Air of the Picture, resulting from a due Observation and Concurrence of all the essential Points and Rules requisite in a compleat Picture, accompany’d with an unconstrained and unaffected Facility and Freedom of the Pencil, which together produced such a ravishing Harmony, that made their Works seem to be performed by some divine and unspeakable Way of ART ; and which (as Fr. Junius expresseth it) is not a Perfection of ART, proceeding meerly from ART, but rather a Perfection proceeding from a consummate ART.
HENCE it was that
Apelles admiring the wonderful Pains and Curiosity in each Point in a Picture of Protogenes’s Painting, yet took Occasion from thence to reprehend him for it as a Fault quod nescivit manum tollere de tabula, implying, that a heavy and painful Diligence and Affectation, are destructive of that Comeliness, Beauty and admired Grace, which only a prompt and prosperous Facility proceeding from a found Judgment of ART, can offord unto us.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection
L’ARTISTE → qualités