ORIGINAL (n.)

OORSPRONKELIJK (nld.) · ORIGINAL (fra.) · ORIGINAL (deu.) · ORIGINEEL (nld.) · PRINCIPAAL (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
OORSPRONKELIJK (nld.) · ORIGINAL (fra.) · ORIGINEEL (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
ORIGINAL (fra.)
GIBSON-WOOD, Carol, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment, New Haven - London, Yale University Press, 2000.
MULLER, Jeffrey M., « Measures of Authenticity: the Detection of Copies in the Early Literature on Connoisseurship », dans PRECIADO, Kathleen (éd.), Retaining the Original. Multiple Originals, Copies, and Reproductions, Actes du colloque de Washington, Hanover, University Press of New England, 1989, p. 141-148.

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5 quotations

Quotation

{To distinguish Principall from Copies.} Generally, in Originalls, the Colours become often vaded, and, in many, much changed ; the Piece in time grown crusty, and often peeles by ill usage. Yet you shall find the Lightnings bold strong, and high ; the shadowes deep and gracefull.
Their
Copies ; if well counterfeit, the workeman must alter the manner of his Colours by a mixt tempering ; otherwayes then the Modern Naturall way of Painting admits. To do this well, he may be lesse excellent in the Precepts of Painting, and yet in this way of working, out Master, a better Artizan ; […].
{How to judge of them} To judge of them with facility ;
Originalls have a Natural force of Grace Rising ; Copies seems to have, only an imperfect, and borrowed comlinesse ; and if you stay to judge of them, thought they seem so, to the sight of Imitation, yet it proceeds not out of a Naturall Genius in the Workeman.
{By distinction} An Imitator, does never come neer the first Author, (unless by excellent modern Masters own working) a
similitude ever more, comes short of that truth, which is in the Things themselves : The Copier being forced to accomodate himself, to another mans intent.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

A Copy is the Repetition of a Work already done when the Artist endeavours to follow That ; As he that Works by Invention, or the Life endeavouring to Coppy Nature, seen, or Conceived makes an Original.
Thus not only That is an Original Painting that is done by Invention, or the Life Imediatly ; but That is so too which is done by a Drawing, or Sketch so done ; That Drawing, or Sketch not being Ultimately intended to be followed, but used only as a help towards the better imitation of Nature, whether Present, or Absent.
And tho’ this Drawing, or Sketch is Thus used by Another hand than that by which ‘tis made, what is so done cannot be said to be a Copy ; the Thought indeed is partly borrowed, but the Work is Original.
For the same reason if a Picture be made after Another, and afterwards gone over by Invention, or the Life, not following That, but endeavouring to improve upon it, it Thus become an Original.
But if a Picture, or Drawing be Coppy’d, and the Manner of Handling be imitated, tho’ with some liberty so as not to follow every Stroak, and Touch it ceases not to be a Coppy ; as that is truly a Translation where the Sence is kept tho’ it be not exactly Literal.

Copy

term translated by ORIGINAL in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 91-92.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

There are some Pictures, and Drawings which are neither Coppies, nor Originals, as being partly One, and partly t’other. If in a History, or large Composition, or even a Single Figure, a Face, or more is incerted, Coppied from what has been done from the Life, such Picture is not intirely Original. Neither is that So, nor Intirely Coppy where the Whole Thought is taken, but the Manner of the Coppier used as to the Colouring, and Handling. A Coppy Retouch’d in Some places by Invention, or the Life is of this Æquivocal kind. I have several Drawings first coppied after Old Masters (Guilio Romano for example,) and then Heightned, and endeavour’d to be improved by Rubens ; So far as His hand has gone is therefore Original, the rest remains pure Coppy. But when he has thus wrought upon Original Drawings (of which I have also many Instances,) the Drawing looses not its first Denomination, ‘tis an Original still, made by two several Masters.
The Ideas of Better, and Worse are generally attached to the Terms Original, and Coppy ; and that with good reason ; not only because Coppies are usually made by Inferiour Hands ; but because tho’ he that makees the Coppy is as Good, or even a Better Master than he that made the Original whatever may happen Rarely, and by Accident, Ordinarily the Coppy will fall short : Our Hands cannot reach what our Minds have conceiv’d ; ‘tis God alone whose works answer to his Ideas. In making an Original our Ideas are taken from Nature ; which the Works of Art cannot equal : When we Coppy ‘tis these Defective Works of Art we take our Ideas from ; Those are the utmost we endeavour to arrive at ; and these lower Ideas too our Hands fail of executing perfectly : An Original is the Eccho of the Voice of Nature, a Coppy is the Eccho of that Eccho.

Copy

term translated by ORIGINAL in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 92-94.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

Prints whether Grav’d in Metal, or Wood, Etch’d or Mezzo-Tincto are a sort of Works done in such a Manner as is not so proper as that whereby Paintings, or Drawings are performed, it not being possible by It to make any thing so Excellent as in the Others. But This way of Working is Chosen upon Other Accounts, such as that thereby great Numbers are produced instead of One, so that the thing comes into Many hands ; and that at an Easy Price.
Of Prints there are two Kinds : Such as are done by the Masters themselves whose Invention the Work is ; and such as are done by Men not pretending to Invent, but only to Coppy (in Their way) Other men’s Works.
The Latter sort of Prints are always profess’d Coppies with respect to the Invention, Composition, Manner of Designing, Grace, and Greatness. But These Prints may be also Coppied as they frequently are, and to know what are So, and what are Orignals is by being well acquainted with the Hands of the Graver, or Etcher, who in This respect are the Masters, as the Painter from whom They Coppied were to them.

The Former Sort may again be Subdivised into three Kinds. I. Those they have done after a Painting of their Own. 2. Those done after a Drawing also done by Themselves, or Lastly what is Design’d upon the Plate, which has been Somtimes done especially in Etching. The Ist of these are Coppies after their Own Works ; and so may the 2d, or they may not, according as the Drawing they have made previously to it happens to be : but Both are so but in Part ; what is Thus done being a Different way of Working. But if it be Design’d on the Plate ‘tis a kind of Drawing (as the Others are) tho’ in a Manner Different from the rest, but ‘tis purely, and properly Original.

term translated by ORIGINAL in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 105-107.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...

Quotation

When a Painter intends to make a History (for example) the way commonly is to design the thing in his Mind, to consider what Figures to bring in, and what they are to Think, Say, or Do ; and then to Sketch upon Paper this Idea of his ; and not only the Invention, but Composition of his intended Picture : This he may alter upon the same Paper, or by making other Sketches, till he is pretty well determin’d as to that ; (and this is that first Sense in which I said the Term Drawing, or Designing was to be understood.) In the next place his Business is to consult the Life, and to make Drawings of particular Figures, or parts of Figures, or of what else he intends to bring into his Work, as he finds necessary ; together also with such Ornaments, or other things of his Invention, as Vases, Frizes, Trophies, &c. till he has brought his Picture to some Perfection on Paper, either in these loose Studies, or in one entire Drawing. This is frequently done, and sometimes these Drawings are finish’d very highly by the Master, either that his Disciples might be able from them to make a greater Progress in the Grand Work, and so leave the less for Himself to do ; or because he made Advantage of such Drawings from the Person who employ’d him, or some other ; and perhaps sometimes for his own Pleasure.
Of these Drawings of all kinds, those great Masters […] made very many ; sometimes several for the same thing, and not only for the same Picture, but for one Figure, or part of a Figure ; and though too many are perish’d, and lost, a considerable Number have escap’d, and been preserved to our Times, some very well, others not, as it has happen’d : And these are exceedingly priz’d by all who understand, and can see their Beauty ; for they are the very Spirit, and Quintessence of the Art ; there we see the Steps the Master took, the Materials with which he made his Finish’d Paintings, which are little other than Copies of these, and frequently (at least in part) by some Other Hand ; but these are undoubtedly altogether his Own and true, and proper Originals.

term translated by ORIGINAL in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 119-121.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → statut de l'oeuvre : copie, original...
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin