LIKENESS (n.)

ÄHNLICHKEIT (deu.) · RESSEMBLANCE (fra.) · SIMILITUDINE (ita.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
GELIJKENIS (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
RESSEMBLANCE (fra.)

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

3 sources
5 quotations

Quotation

{Pen and Pensill described.} The most excellent use of the Penn, and Pensil, is illustrated by the admirable Art of Drawing, and Painting ; and perfectly defined, to be the Imitation of the Surface of Nature, in Proportion and Colour.
By
Mathematicall Demonstration of Globes, Spheres, Charts, […].
Or, by particular description of
Plotts, Fortifications, […].
Or, by shapes of Creatures ;
Men, and Beasts ; Birds, and Fishes.
Or, by
Vegetables ; Fruits, Flowers, Hearbs.
In all, it preferrs likenesse to the
Life, and conserves it, after Death ; and altogether by the Sense of Seeing.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition du dessin

Quotation

{Likenesse, not to be compared} But the worke of Art, is not singly in the Similitude or likenesse to the Life, (as common judgement will have it) but in the Symmetry  ; which in truth, proceeds from someskill in the Artizan’s surpassing Art.
{To Symmetry} It was distinguished by that excellent
Painter. A Boy holding a cluster of Grapes so like, that deceived the Birds, and yet not deterred by the shape of the Lad ; which therefore being an exception to the excellencie of the Piece, the Painter put out the Grapes, (though most like,) but reserved the Boy (for his Symmetry,) as the better esteem of the Art ; not understood by ordinary capacities.
{And therefore Naked Bodies hard to Paint.} You shall hardly find an
Artist, very excellent in a naked body, where true Symmetry is expected ; and therefore the ancient skill of the Græcians, sildome apparelled any. A timorous Painter, excuses his weaknesse, by covering the body, with a muffled Mantle.
{Defining Lines, what ?} The
Artizans call this proportion, the designing lines, Scatches, the first draught, and so a second and third, before you Paint them ; {A Cut.} which stroaks, by those that have insight in Art, are esteemed of high value ; for by these first draughts, the true force and undisguised Lineaments of Nature, do ravish the contemplation ; wherein the thought of a studious Artificer is perfectly evidenced.
[…].

similitude

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

The first sitting to worke in particular.
{Particular directions of the Picture.} The comlinesse of the
face consists in three abilities, Beautifull, Colour or Complexion ; true Proportion and Favour ; and Grace in the Countenance ; The curious Artist must watch and catch the lovely graces, witty smilings, short and suddain, which pass like Lightning. […].
  The first
Colour to begin the face, are the Redds of the Cheeks and Lipps […]. I have seen Pictures of a good Master begun, and dead-coloured only, that neer at hand they seemed exceeded Rough, Uneven, and unpleasant ; yet being viewed at a distance from your Eye, they appear very smooth, neat and delicate : therefore I shall perswade you in this first worke, not to study or regard curiosity, or neatness of your Colours ; but a bold and judicious manner of expressing, what you see in the Life.
[…].


 
Second sitting.
[…].

Third Sitting.
{Third sitting.} The
third sitting will be only spent in giving the strong touches necessary for rounding the face, which now will appear better for observation, the apparrell, hair, and ground, being already finished.
{Likenesse, Resemblance, Countenance, Marks, Moles.} In this
sitting therefore observe, what ever may conduce to the likeness and resemblance, which above all is the principal aime : viz. skin-molds, smiling, or glanceing of the eye, descending or contracting the mouth ; narrowing the eyes, with smiling : to which purpose, find occasion of discourse, or cause the party to be in action, or to regard you with a Joviall merry and discoursive aspect. Wherein you must be ready and apprenhensive to steal observations, and to express them with a quick bold and constant hand, ever remembring not to make the deeper shadows too darke and obscure, as happily you may think they appear in the Life, which in Painting (as deep as the Life) is no good Rule to follow, and in Limning is a note of very necessary consequences ; conclude your face with these observations, that the eye gives the life ; the nose, the flavour ; the mouth, the likeness.

resemblance

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait

Quotation

Chap. VI, Of Shadowing, and Rules to be observed therein.
The out-lines of any Draught or Picture give the Symmetry or Proportion, which is enough to a good judgment : So the Figures before in this Book have only the out-lines, and those are best to practice first by : I say, the Out-lines shew the Proportion to a good judgment ; but the Lines and Shadows give the lively likeness. In Shadowing therefore of any Picture you must observe these Rules following.

RULE I.
Cast your Shadows always one way, that is, on which side you begin to shadow your Figure, either on the right or left side, you must continue so doing through your whole work. As in the figure of a Man, if you begin to shadow his left Cheek, you must shadow the left side of his Neck, the left side of his Arms, the left side of his Body, […].
RULE II.
All Shadows must grow fainter and fainter, as they are farther removed from the opacous body from whence they issue.
RULE III.
In great Winds, where Clouds are driven to and for several ways ; as also in Tempests at Sea, where Wave exposeth Wave ; here contrary shadows must concur, as striving for superiority : here in such cases you must be sure to supply the greatest first, and from them, according to your judgment supply the lesser ; practice and imitation of good Copies will be your best director.
RULE IV.
All Circular bodies must have a Circular shadow, as they have a Circular form, and as the object of light which causeth shadow is Circular.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → proportion

Quotation

But the Face-Painter is under a greater Constraint in both respects than he that paints History ; Additional Grace, and Greatness he is to give, above what is to be found in the Life, must not be thrown in too profusely, the Resemblance must be preserv’d, and appear with Vigour ; the Picture must have Both. Then it may be said, that the Gentleman, or Lady makes a Fine, or a Handsome Picture : But the Likeness not being regarded, ‘tis not They, but the Painter that makes it ; nor is there any great Difficulty in making Such Fine Pictures.
I was lately observing with a great deal of Pleasure how the Ancients had succeeded in the three several ways of Managing Portraits : I happen’d to have then before me (amongst others) several Medals of the Emperor
Maximinus, who was particularly remarkable for a long Chin : One Medal of him had That, but that the Artist might be sure of a Likeness he had Exaggerated it : Another had par’d off about half of it : But these as they wanted the Just Resemblance, so there was a Poverty in them ; they were destitute of that Life, and Spirit which the other had, where Nature seems to have been moore closely follow’d. In making Portraits we must keep Nature in View ; if we launch out into the Deep we are lost.

resemblance

term translated by RESSEMBLANCE in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 151-152.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → portrait