LIGHT (n.)

BELEUCHTUNG (deu.) · BETAGUNG (deu.) · JOUR (fra.) · KAARSLICHT (nld.) · LICHT (deu.) · LICHT (nld.) · LICHTJE (nld.) · LUCE (ita.) · LUME (ita.) · LUMIÈRE (fra.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
CLAIR (fra.) · HELDERHEID (nld.) · JOUR (fra.) · LICHT (nld.) · LUMIÈRE (fra.) · REHAUT (fra.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
JOUR (fra.)
HOCHMANN, Michel et JACQUART, Danielle (éd.), Lumière et vision dans les sciences et les arts de l’Antiquité au XVIIe siècle, Actes du colloque de Paris, Genève, Droz, 2010.
MARTINET, Marie-Madeleine, « L'or et l'argent dans l'art au XVIIe et au XVIIIe siècles en Angleterre : couleurs, lumières, valeurs », Argent et valeurs dans le monde anglo-américain aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, Actes du colloque de Paris, Paris, Société d'études anglo-américaines des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, 1980, p. 61-74 [En ligne : http://www.persee.fr/doc/xvii_0294-1953_1980_act_11_1_2167 consulté le 25/10/2016].

FILTERS

CONCEPTUAL FIELDS

LINKED QUOTATIONS

11 sources
27 quotations

Quotation

A Shadow is nothing else but a diminution of the first and second light.
The first light I call that which proceedeth immediately from a lightned body, as the beames of the Sunne.
The second is an accidental light dispreading it self into the aire or
medium, proceeding from the other.
Under this division are comprehended the other lights, as the light of glory is referred to the first. The light of all manner of reflexions to the second.
            Shadowes are threefold : the first is a single shadow, and the least of all other, and is proper to the plaine Superficies, where it is not wholy possessed of the light ; as for example.
I draw a foure square plate thus, that shadow, because there is no hollow, but all plaine (as neerest participating with the light) is most naturall and agreeable to that body.
The second is the double shadow, and it is used when the Superficies begins once to forsake your eyes as you may perceive best in columnes as thus : where it beeing darkened double, it presenteth to your eye (as it were) the backside, leaving that unshadowed to the light. Your treble shadow is made by crossing over your double shadow againe, which darkeneth by a third part in this manner, as followeth. [ndr : les deux types d’ombres sont illustrés par des petits dessins accolés au texte].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’ARTISTE → apprentissage

Quotation

Generall rules for Landtskip.

You shall alwayes in your Landtskip shew a faire Horizon, and expresse the heaven more or lesse either over-cast by clouds, or with a cleere skie, […].
2. If you shew the Sunne, let all the light of your trees, hilles, rockes, buildings, &c. be given thitherward : shadow also your clouds from the Sunne : and you must be very daintie in lessening your bodies by their distance, […].
If you lay your Landskip in colours, the farther you goe, the more you must lighten it with a thinne and ayerie blew, to make it seeme farre off, begining it first with a darke greene, so driving it by degrees into a blew, which the densitie of the ayre betweene our sight, and that place doth (onely imaginarily) effect.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Quotation

Of Colouring
{Colouring. what ?} Corruption composition or mixing of
Colours, we call Painting ; which is, to express shadows in Colours ; thereby, to resemble, what we do desire to imitate, by a moderate confusion, or tempering, discordant Colours ; as white, black, red, blew, green, &c.
[…].
{With Light and shadows.} Observe herein
Light and Shadows, Obscurity and Brightnesse.
Contrary things are more apparant, being placed neer their Contraries ;
Light and Shadows forward, set out any Painting outwards ; as if you might take hold of any part.
Obscurity or Darknesse, is the duskishness of a deeper shadow ; as brightness is the Intension of Light.
White appears sooner, or neerer to the Eye ; and the black seems farther off, any thing that should seem hollow (as in a Well, or Cave,) must be coloured blackish ; more deep, more black.
On the contrary, to lighten or rise forward, with
white.
{Tonus, what?}
Tonus or brightnesse ; as it is of necessary use, so of excellent ornament in a Picture, it is which is above light ; {A Brightness.} sparkling as in the glory of Angels, twinckling of precious stones ; […] : the variety of these Ornaments, must be expressed excellently ; but avoid satiety, not cloy your Picture with it.
{Harmogia what ?}
Harmoge in Colours, is an unperceivable way of Arts ; stealing to pass from one Colour to another, as in the sea and skie meeting in one thin mistly Horizontall stroake, both are lost and confounded in sight ; […].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

I cannot prescribe, how to order your light, in a piece of Landskip by the Life ; for according to the place, as you look North, or Southward, East, or West-ward, as the time of the day and the Sun’s declination, so must you order your shadows as they appear. But in all working of Painting by Fancie, let your light descend from your left, to your right hand : So will it appear upon the work, from the right to the left, the more gracefull. […].
{To make a Landskip.} In making it ; First, beginne with a large
skie or Element and if there be any shining or reflection of the Sunne, (in which only the Dutch are neat and curious,) then you must be carefull, by no meanes to mixe Red-lead, or Mene, in the purple of the skie, or Clouds, but only with Lake and White ; […] For you must not mingle the blew Colours of the Clouds with any Pensil that hath touched Masticoate ; It will make the skie Greenish and discoloured.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Having made your hand fit and ready in generall proportion, learn to give all bodies their true shadows according to their eminence and concavity, and to heighthen or deepen, as your body appeareth nearer or farther from the light ; which is a matter of great judgment, and indeed the soul (as I may say) of a picture.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

CHAP. XXIV. Of Preparations for Limning.
[...]
V. Have ready a quantity of light carnation or flesh colour temperd up in a shell by it self with a weak gum water ; If it be a fair complexion mix white and red Lead together ; if a brown or swarthy, add to the former, Masticot, or English Oker, or both : but be sure the flesh colour be always lighter than the complexion you would limne ; for by working on it you may bring it to its true colour.

[...]
VII. In all shadowings have ready some white, and lay a good quantity of it by it self, besides what the shadows are first mixed with ; for red for the cheeks and lips, temper Lake and red Lead together : for blew shadows (as under the eyes and in veins) Indico or Ultramarine and white : for gray faint shadows, white, English Oker, sometimes Masticote : for deep shadows, white, English oker, Umber : for dark shadows, Lake and Pink, white make a good fleshy shadow.

VIII. To make choice of the light.
Let it be fair and large, and free from shadows of trees or houses, but all clear skie light, and let it be direct from above, and not transverse ; let it be northerly and southerly ; and let the room be close and clean, and free from the Sun-beams.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

MATERIALITE DE L’ŒUVRE → couleurs
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Now the Painter expresseth two things with his colour : First the colour of the thing, whether it be artificial or natural, which he doth with the like colour, as the colour of a blew garment with artificial blew, or the green colour of a Tree with the like green : Secondly he expresseth the light of the Sun, or any other bright Body apt to lighten or manifest the colours, and because colour cannot be seen without light, being nothing else (as the Philosophers teach) but the extream Superficies of a dark untransparent Body lightned, I hold it expedient for him that will prove exquisite in the use thereof, to be most diligent in searching out the effects of light, when it enlightneth colour, which who so doth seriously consider, shall express all those effects with an admirable Grace ; […].
Now when the
Painter would imitate this blew thus lightned, he shall take his artificial blew colour, counterfeiting therewith the blew of the garment, but when he would express the light, wherewith the blew seems clearer, he must mix so much white with his blew, as he findeth light in that part of the garment, where the light striketh with greater force, considering afterwards the other part of the garment, where there is not so much light, and shall mingle less white with his blew proportionably, and so shall he proceed with the like discretion in all the other parts : and where the light falleth not so vehemently, but only by reflexion there he shall mix so much shadow with his blew, as shall seem sufficient to represent that light, loosing it self as it were by degrees, provided alwayes, that where the light is less darkned, there he place his shadow,
In which judicious expressing of the effects of light together with the
colours, Raphael Urbine, Leonard Vincent, Antonius de Coreggio and Titian were most admirable, handling them with so great discretion and judgement, that their Pictures seemed rather natural, then artificial ; the reason whereof the vulgar Eye cannot conceive, notwithstanding these excellent Masters expressed their chiefest art therein, considering with themselves that the light falling upon the flesh caused these and such like effects, in which kind Titan excelled the rest, who as well to shew his great Skill therein, as to merit commendation, used to cozen and deceive Mens Eyes, […].

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité des couleurs

Quotation

Of the Vertue of Light.


Light hath so great force in Pictures, that (in my judgement) therein consisteth the whole grace thereof, if it be well understood, an contrarywife, the disgrace if it be not perceived, and evident example whereof we may see in a Body proportionably drawn which being yet without the lights, sheweth very beautifull, so far forth as it is wrought, but if afterwards it shall be shadowed without judgement and art, so that the shadowes be confusedly placed where the lights ought to be, and contrarywise the lights where the Middle of the shadows should be, and the concavities and convexities disorderly suited, without any Imitation of Nature it were better it had never been either drawn or lightned, whereas having lights well disposed, it doth not only add perfection to the draught but so sets it off from the Flat that it seems to be imbossed
And in this
vertue and power consisteth the chiefest excellency of the Painter […].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Quotation

Wherefore, I will handle the lights, saying nothing of the shadows, although they be handled together with them, for the shadows do necessarily follow the lights, being caused by the decay of the light, taking so much the more force, by how much the more forcibly the light striketh upon the Body, whence ariseth that exceeding great raising and heightning of a natural plain, in a Body receiving the light according to his proper nature.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

[…] this Light [ndr : la lumière provenant du soleil ou du feu] is dispersed and extended unto all Bodies that are openly proposed unto it, in which colour, and a beautifull resplendency of thick and darke Bodies is discovered (as the Platonicks speak) caused by this light, together with certain beneficient and generative vertues. But where the Sun-beams fall not, and are not at all dispersed, there (the beams of the Eye being restrained) remaineth a dark colour, which displeaseth […].
Whence those who are
judicious in this Art, use to give lights to all things after one and the self same manner ; insomuch as we see, that the Sun rising above our Horizon, lighneth all things in an instant, the reason whereof is, because the light hath no contrary which might hinder it, with his action. Wherefore it performeth his operations in the Air, in an instant
[…].
Whence the judicious in this Art, forbid us to give lights in a picture unto all Bodies, after one and the self same manner.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Of Landskip.


{
Landskip.} In drawing Landskip with water colours ever begin with the Skie, and if there be any Sunbeams, do them first. 
{
Purple Clouds.} For the Purple Clouds, only mingle Lake and white.
{
Yellow.} The Sun-beams, Masticot and white.
{
Note 1.} Work your blew Skie with smalt only, or Ultramarine.
{
Note 2.} At your first working dead colour all the piece over, leave nothing uncovered, lay the colour smooth and even.
{
Note 3.} Work the Skie down in the Horizon fainter as you draw near the Earth, except in tempestuous skies, work your further Mountains so that they should seem to be lost in the Air.
{
Note 4.} Your first ground must be of the colour of the Earth and dark ; yellowish, brown, green, the next successively as they loose in their distance must also faint and abate in their colours
{
Note 5.} Beware of perfection at a distance.
{
Note 6.} Ever place light against dark, and dark against light (that is) the only way to extend the prospect far off, is by opposing light to shadows, yet so as ever they must loose their force and vigor in proportion as they remove from the Eye, and the strongest shadow ever nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective

Quotation

Observations for Placing the Lights, and for Shadowing of Garments, and other things in general.


Observation I.


Let all the Lights be placed one way in those Piece of Work, whether in the Figure, Faces, or Garments. If the Lights fall sideways on the Picture, you make the other side (which is furthest from the Light) darkest. And let the Lights be placed all together on the one side, and not confusedly on both sides alike, […].

The Reason why the Shadows must generally fall one way.


First, because the Light doth not with all its brightness illuminate any more then that part that is directly opposite unto it.
The second Reason is taken from the nature of the Eye ; for the first part of the Body coming to the Eye with a bigger angle, is seen more distinctly ; but the second part being further off, is seen by the Eye in a lesser angle. […]. 


Observation II.


That part of the Body must be made lightest, which hath the Light most directly opposite to it ; as the Light be placed above the Head, descending then, the top of the Head must be made Lightest, the Shoulder next Lightest, and so you must lose by degrees. […]. As for Sattens and Silks, and all other Shining Stuffs, have certain Bright Reflections, exceeding Bright, with sudden Light Glances, especially where the Light falls brightest ; and so the Reflections are less bright, by how much the Garment falls more inward from the Light. The like is seen in Armour, and Brass Pots and Kettles, or any Glittering Metalls : you may see a sudden Brightness in the middle or centre of the Light, which causes the Shining nature of such things.

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → vêtements et plis

Quotation

Friend.
 
            What is properly the Colouring of a Piece of Painting ?
 
                        Traveller.
 
           
It is the Art of employing the Colours proper to the Subject, with a regard to the Lights and Shadows that are incident to the Story, either according to the Truth of it, or to the Painter’s Invention : and out of the Management of these comes all the Strength, Relievo, and Roundness that the Figures have : ’tis hard to give Positive Rules here, it depending much on Practice ; but the most General is, so to manage your Colours, Lights, and Shadows, that the Bodies enlightned may appear by the Opposition of your Shadows ; which by that means may make the Eye rest with Pleasure upon them ; and also, that there be an imperceptible passage from your Shadows to your Lights.
            ’Tis generally observed likewise to make the greatest Light fall upon the middle of the Piece, where the principal Figures ought to be, and to lessen it by degrees towards the sides till it loose it self.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

If you express the Light of the Sun in any Landskip, be sure that through your whole work you cast the light of your Trees, Buildings, Rocks, Ruines, and all things else expressed within the verge thereof thitherwards.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Chap. VI, Of LANDKSIP.
The bounds and limits of
Landskip are inexpressible, they being as various as fancy is copious ; I will give you only some general Rules for Painting of Landskip, and so conclude this third Book.
In painting of any Landskip always begin with the Sky, the Sun-beams, or lightest parts first ; next the Yellow beams, which compose of Masticote and White ; next your Blew Skies, with Smalt only. At your first colouring leave no part of your ground uncovered ; but lay Your Colours smooth and even all over. Work your Sky downwards towards your Horizon fainter and fainter, as it draws nearer and nearer to the Earth ; you must work your tops of Mountains and objects far remote, so faint that they may appear as lost in the Air : Your lowest and nearest Ground must be of the colour of the earth, of a dark yellowish brown Green, the next lighter Green, and so successively as they lose in their distance, they must abate in their colour. Make nothing that you see at a distance perfect ; as if discerning a Building to be fourteen or fifteen miles off, I know not Church, Castle, House, or the like ; so that in drawing of it you must express no particular sign, as Bell, Portcullis, or the like ; but express it in colours as weakly and faintly as your eye judgeth of it. Ever in your Landskip place light against dark, and dark against light, which is the only way to extend the prospect far off, occasioned by opposing light to shadow ; yet so as the shadows must lose their force in proportion as they remove from the eye, and the strongest shadow must always be nearest hand.

Conceptual field(s)

GENRES PICTURAUX → paysage
EFFET PICTURAL → perspective
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Light hath so great Force in Painting, that the Gracefull Part consists much therein, for if the Lights are well dispos’d, there will be a Beauty in the Picture (although not a Perfection) notwithstanding the Draught be not Extraordinary ; for it is through the Vertue of that, that the Figures are brought off from the Flat.
            The Force hereof may be seen in the
Resurection of our Saviour (as hath been observ’d) in the Covent of the Church of Grace in Millain, by Bernard Zenale Triviliano ; where though the Muscles and other Necessary Complements for a perfect piece of Work are not seen, yet it gives a great satisfaction, by the strength and orderly Disposal of the Lights. The Power of it is likewise such, that it gives admirable Foreshortnings and Perpectives ; neither can Form, Motion, Proportion, Composition, Order or Figure have Perfection without it, like a Body without Situation or Spirit.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Quotation

Light is twofold Primary and Secondary, the Primary is that which falleth on that part of the Colour’d Body which is opposite to the Body giving Light, touching it with direct Beams ; a Light Body is that which hath Light within it self, as the Sun, Fire, &c. now that Light which ariseth from this Primary Light is the Secondary Light.
[...].

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Chap. XXI, The Effects of Light.

The Light falling on the Flesh of Young Women and Children causeth a Pleasant, Tender Shaddow without much Reflection ; but when on old hard and stiff Flesh, it remaineth more Harsh, the shaddows being harder : [...].
           
In Drapery it must be observ’d that those Folds which come nearest to the Bones, as the Joynts of the Fingers, the Shoulders, the Knees and other Eminences, must be more strongly Touch’d then the other Parts, and by that means the Flesh will appear the more soft and sweet.
            On
Diamonds and other Pretious Stones the Light falls more quick and strong according to the Condensation of their Bodys, next upon polisht Mettals as Silver, Armour, &c [...].

Conceptual field(s)

EFFET PICTURAL → qualité de la lumière

Quotation

We will now lay down a few Precepts necessary to be observ’d and so conclude this Discourse of Chiaro Scuro.
In
Light we must consider the Sun in his Luster, as Rising, Meridionall, Setting and according to the Vapours he meets in the Air. [...].
We must Consider
Lights as Principall falling Perpendicular (without Interruption) on any Surface or Extremity. Glancing by sliding Diagonally on Elevated Bodys. And Secondary, for things at distance, according to the Thickness of Vapours which Intervene, and offer many incidental opportunitys for giving the more Beauty to the stronger Lights ; as likewise loosen the Lighted parts by the opposition of the deep Teints.
If the
Design be in the open Air, the Light is extended and diffus’d on the Objects with the greater Tenderness. If in Inclosed Places, it is more confin’d, the Lightnings more strong and Quick.
The
Chief Light must be on the Principall Figure of the Group, and must be extended without the Interruption of little shaddows, that the Relievo may stand more boldly out.
All Shaddow must have a Sympathy with the Lights in their Colour as likewise the Reflections with the Bodys Reflecting. Arteficial Lights, if very bright, give a quick Heightning, and dark and deeply shortned Shaddows.
Lastly it must be carefully observ’d that betwixt all
Lights and Shaddows there must be such Mediums, as may take of all Hardness, and so Arteficially wrought in as may not foul either with the other and so take away the Beauty and strength of the Picture.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière

Quotation

Precepts about Ordonnance and Design. As Likewise for Drawing by the Life.
In Designing a Peice of History we must have greatest Regard to the Principal
Group, that the Lights fall strongest on it, and more especially on the Cheif Figure that it be of the first Character and most Finishd, being the Eye of the work.
            That the
Group be sustain’d by something that seems loose about it, which serves to extend and continue it to some other Group by, otherwise the Diminution will be too apparent, and break to much into Heaps, and the Eye not descend naturally from one to another, which must, begining at the Principall, fall according to the Mind of the Story.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → groupe

Quotation

However I will here make him [ndr : au lecteur] an Offer of an Abstract of what I take to be those by which a Painter, or Connoisseur, may safely conduct himself, [...] III. There must be One Principal Light, and This, and all the subordinate ones with the Shaddows, and Reposes, must make One, Intire, Harmonious Mass ; The several Parts must be well Connected, and Contrasted, so as that Tout-ensemble must be Grateful to the Eye ; as a good piece of Musick is to the Ear. By this Means the Picture is not only more Delightful, but better Seen, and Comprehended. [...] V. The Colouring whether Gay, or Solid, must be Natural, Beautiful, and Clean, and what the Eye is delighted with, in Shaddows as well as Lights, and Middle Tints.

term translated by JOUR in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 12-13.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → lumière
CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → couleur

Quotation

I will give a Specimen of what I have been proposing [ndr : dans sa manière de juger une peinture], and the Subject shall be a Portrait of V. Dyck which I have, ‘tis a Half-length of a Countess Dowager of Exeter, as I learn from the Print made of it by Faithorn, and that is almost all one can learn from That concerning the Picture besides the General Attitude, and Disposition of it.
The Dress is Black Velvet, and That appearing almost one large Spot, the Lights not being so managed as to connect it, with the other parts of the Picture ;
The Face, and Linnen at the Neck, and the two Hands, and broad Cuffs at the Wrists being by this means three several Spots of Light, and that near of an equal degree ; and forming almost an Equilateral Triangle, the Base of which is parallel to that of the Picture, the Composition is Defective ; and this occasion’d chiefly from the want of those Lights upon the Black. But so far as the Head, and almost to the Wast, with the Curtain behind, there is an Admirable Harmony, the Chair also makes a Medium between the Figure, and the Ground. The Eye is deliver’d down into that Dead Black Spot the Drapery with great Ease, the Neck is cover’d with Linnen, and at the Breast the top of the Stomacher makes a streight line. This would have been very harsh, and disagreeable but that ‘tis very Artfully broken by the Bowes of a Knot of narrow Ribbon which rise above that Line in fine, well-contrasted Shapes. This Knot fastens a Jewel on the Breast, which also helps to produce the Harmony of this part of the Picture, and the white Gloves which the Lady holds in her Left Hand, helps the Composition something as they vary That Light Spot from That which the Other Hand, and Linnen makes.