BATE, John, The Mysteryes of Nature and Art : Conteined in foure severall Tretises, The first of water workes The second of Fyer workes. The third of Drawing, Colouring, Painting, and Engraving. The fourth of divers Experiments as wel serviceable as delightful: partly Collected, and partly of the Authors Peculiar Pratice, and Invention, London, Ralph Mab - Thomas Harper, 1634.1 quotations
Etching is an imitation of engraving, but more speedily performed. Things may be expressed to the life thereby, but not so sweetly as by the Graver. It is thus performed : the Plate you are to etch upon, must first exactly be pollished, afterwards overlaid but very lightly with a ground made for the purpose, (of which anon) and thereupon must be pounced, drawne, or traced, the thing that you are to etch : then the said ground is to be pierced with divers stiles of severall bignesse according as the shadowes of the picture doe require : afterwards the edges of the Plate are to be raised with soft waxe and strong water, (for so they terme it:) (It is to be had at the signe of the Legge in Foster Lane a Distiller) is to be put upon it, which in those places were the strokes, are required to be lightly performed, is to be abated or alayed with faire water, which having dured a while upon the plate, will eate into it, as it were engraven, then out it into cold water, and wash it about, and it will leave eating further, and then take off the ground and it is done.
SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.1 quotations
Of Engraving, Etching and Limning.
Shewing the Instruments belonging to the work ; the matter of the work, and the way and manner of performing the same ; together with all other requisites and ornaments. [...] CHAP. VII. Of Etching, and the Materials thereof.
I. ETCHING is an Artificial Engraving of Brass or Copper Plates with Aqua fortis.
II. The Instruments of Etching (besides the Plate) are these nine. I. Hard Varnish. 2. Soft Varnish. 3. Prepared Oyl. 4. Aqua fortis. 5. Needles. 6. Oyl stone. 7. Brush-pensil. 8. Burnisher. 9. The Frame and Trough.
[...]. [...] CHAP. IX. The way and manner of Etching.
I. In making lines or hatches, some bigger, some lesser, straight or crooked, you must use several sorts of needles, bigger or lesser as the work requires.
II. The great lines are made by leaning hard on the needle ; [...].
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.1 quotations
The Art of Etching.
The Grounds and Rules of Etching.
Before that you begin to Etch upon copper, it is very necessary to practise the Art of Drawing, till you be able if need require to draw any head after the life, or to draw a design, for it you intend to practice the Art of Etching, you will find it very profitable to draw after good prints, which are well designed, and graved, and when you have practised so long that you are able to coppy any print, or drawing very exactly ; then draw after good Heads of plaister or figures, according to your own fancy, which will learn you to shadow according to Art, if well observed, therefore be sure when you draw after plaister, to observe very exactly to take the true outlines or circumferences, and then take notice how the shadow falls, then shadow it very faint and soft, where need requires. The prints which I recommend unto you as absolutely the best to learn to Etch or Grave after, be the prints of Henry Goldshis and Hermon Muller, therefore it is very convenient to leaan to hatch with the Pen exactly after either of the aforesaid prints of Goldshis or Muller, and when you have brought it to that perfection ; and can draw very well after plaister, you may practise to draw after the life ; but before you draw after the life, you must be very exact and true in your outlines or circumferences.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.1 quotations
Chap. I, Of Etching with Aqua fortis.
There are several ways for Etching, and several Grounds of divers colours, used by several men. I shall deliver here onely one, and that so familiar, easie, and true, that I believe there is not a better Ground, nor a more accurate way performing the work intended, than that which shall be here taught ; it being the only way, so many years practised, and to this day continued by that unparallel’d designer and incomparable Etcher in Aqua fortis, Mr. Hollar ; the manner of performing the whole work is as followeth.
SECT. I. To make Mr. Hollar’s Ground, and how to Etch in Copper, and what Instruments ought to be used in the practice thereof.
Take three parts of Virgins Wax, one part of Asphaltum, one part of the best Mastick […] ; so is your Ground prepared.
SECT. II. How to prepare your Copper.
Your Copper must be well planisht, that it may lie level ; and before you lay on the Ground, take your Plate, and with a Charcoal well burnt, coal it over with very clean water ; then wash it off with clean Water never used before, and set it sloping to run off ; when it is dry, then scrape some Chalk fine all over it, and with a very clean fine rag rub it over ; but let not your fingers touch upon the Plate, till you have put the Ground on, which you must lay on thus.