ART (n.)

ART (fra.) · ARTE (ita.) · KUNST (deu.) · KUNST (nld.)
TERM USED AS TRANSLATIONS IN QUOTATION
KUNST (nld.)
TERM USED IN EARLY TRANSLATIONS
ART (fra.)
WESTSTEIJN, Thijs, Art and Antiquity in the Netherlands and Britain: the Vernacular Arcadia of Franciscus Junius (1591-1677), Leiden, Brill, 2015.

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LINKED QUOTATIONS

8 sources
12 quotations

Quotation

An easie way to take the naturall, and lively shape of the leafe of any hearbe or tree, which thing passeth the Art of man to imitate with Pen or Pensill.


First take the leafe that you would have, and gently bruise the ribs and veines on the backe side of it, afterwards wet that side with Linseed-oyle, and then presse it hard upon a peece of cleane white paper, and so you shall have the perfect figure of the said leafe, with every veine thereof, so exactly exprest as being lively coloured, it would seeme to bee truly naturall, by this we learne, that Nature being but a little adjuvated or seconded with Art, can worke wonders.
Now for the farther information of such as are desirous of exemplarie instruction, I have set downe in order following the delineation of the proportion of such things as in my judgement seemed most necessarie for young beginners, and those in such easie demonstrations as for the most part they consist of equall squares, and require no more for their right understanding, then diligent observation, I might have filled a whole Booke of such like: but having considered that what I had done, was a sufficient ground for a farther procession, I thought fitting to leave each person to the exercise and practise of his best Invention.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

We may paint a conceived, or intelligible thing, Perfect, by the Idea of Fancie : but, by Imitation, we may faile of Perfection. Hence it was, that the Antients intending to excell in the forms and figures of their Jupiters, would not imitate, or take a pattern, generated, but rather, by a conceived description of Him, out of Homer, or other Poets.
There is in the
form and shape of things, a certain perfection and excellencie ; unto whose conceived figures, such things by Imitation, are referred, that cannot be seen.
{To encrease fancie.} To amend
fancie, we must lodge up such rarities, as are administred to fight, to encrease the meditation of fancie ; as in your dayly view of forms and shadows, made by lights and darknesses ; […].
{And order it in a Picture.} In a
draught of designe, the Artist must fancie every circumstance of his matter in hand ; as usually Rubens would (with his Arms a cross) fit musing upon his work for some time ; […]. The Commotions of the mind, are not to be cooled by flow performance : discreet diligence, brings forth Excellence : Care, and Exercise, are the chiefest precepts of Art. But, diligence is not to stagger, and stay at unnecessary Experiments ; and therefore I have observed in excellent Pieces a willing neglect, which hath added singular grace unto it.

Conceptual field(s)

L’ARTISTE → qualités
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → beauté, grâce et perfection

Quotation

{Likenesse, not to be compared} But the worke of Art, is not singly in the Similitude or likenesse to the Life, (as common judgement will have it) but in the Symmetry  ; which in truth, proceeds from someskill in the Artizan’s surpassing Art.
{To Symmetry} It was distinguished by that excellent
Painter. A Boy holding a cluster of Grapes so like, that deceived the Birds, and yet not deterred by the shape of the Lad ; which therefore being an exception to the excellencie of the Piece, the Painter put out the Grapes, (though most like,) but reserved the Boy (for his Symmetry,) as the better esteem of the Art ; not understood by ordinary capacities.
{And therefore Naked Bodies hard to Paint.} You shall hardly find an
Artist, very excellent in a naked body, where true Symmetry is expected ; and therefore the ancient skill of the Græcians, sildome apparelled any. A timorous Painter, excuses his weaknesse, by covering the body, with a muffled Mantle.
{Defining Lines, what ?} The
Artizans call this proportion, the designing lines, Scatches, the first draught, and so a second and third, before you Paint them ; {A Cut.} which stroaks, by those that have insight in Art, are esteemed of high value ; for by these first draughts, the true force and undisguised Lineaments of Nature, do ravish the contemplation ; wherein the thought of a studious Artificer is perfectly evidenced.
[…].

Conceptual field(s)

L’HISTOIRE ET LA FIGURE → figure et corps
CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

{Proportion.} All which representations are after declared in that part of the Definition [ndr : la définition de la peinture p. 24], where it is said, that Painting, with proportionable lines maketh, &c. where we must Note that the Painter in his descriptions, doth not draw lines at randome, without Rule, Proportion, or Art, (as some vainly have imagined) since the Arrantest Bunglers that are, proceed with some little Method, and although Horace in his book de Arte Poetica saith : that


The Poet and the Painter, hath like Patent to invent,
A Story and dispose the same as shall him best content.


Yet that is thus to be understood, that it is lawfull for him to express a
Figure, […] ; this only excepted the Painter is bound to proceed in all his Works according to proportion and art. Wherefore before you begin to Stell, delineate or trick out the proportion of a Man, you ought to know his true Quantity and Stature for it were a gross absurdity to make a Man of the length of Eight Faces, which is of Nine or Ten, besides this, we ought to know what proportion the Fore-head hath with the Nose, […], and in a Word to learn the true proportions of all things natural and artificial.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTION DE LA PEINTURE → dessin
L’ARTISTE → qualités

Quotation

Traveller.
           
There wanted a Spirit and Life, which their Successors gave to their Works [ndr : les successeurs désignent les artistes de la génération suivant celle de Mantegna, A. da Messina, etc.] ; and particularly, an Easiness ; which hides the pains and labour that the Artist has been at ; it being with Painting as with Poetry ; where, the greatest Art, is to conceal Art ; that is, that the Spectator may think that easie, which cost the Painter infinite Toyl and Labour :

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Quotation

Painting is an Art, which by Draught of Lines and Colours, doth not only Express the Forms of all things, on the superficies of the Earth (according to Socrates) [...] with the Actions of all Animals, but likewise the Passions of Intellectual Beings.
           It is the Noblest of all
Arts, since it immediately Copys after the Miraculous hand of the Almighty ; nor only imitates Created Beings, but the Creation it self : for out of a Chaos of Colours, which by chance mixture, would perish in their mutual Imbraces, and of themselves are Glaring, or Foul ; and thence unpleasing to the Eye, as ill sounds are Diaphonous to the Ears ; the Artfull Hand, by a Sympathy in Mixture, and the Harmonious Unisons of Proportion, not only Formes a Beautifull Body, but likewise gives the Expressions of the Soul.
           It is the most
Expressive of all Arts, and of more General Information then Printing ; for it speaks at once to all Nations and Languages, and they who are strangers to Letters, may read the story in it self : therefore the Egyptians Couch’d their wisest Morals in Hieroglyphicks and Emblems, and the Universality of the Knowing part of Mankinde Improv’d thereby.
           It hath more Force of
Perswasion then Eloquence, for the Idea of any thing is more Subtilly and Entirely Conveyed to the Understanding by the Eye then by the Ear, Objects being more Allective to this Sence then the other ; and having this Advantage, that the Visual Rayes at once Comprise the whole Story, whereas Relation is Dilatory and thence more Burthensome to the Memory.
           What use the Ancients made of this
Art for the Exciting Vertue, may be seen in these (amongst Nnmberless) Exemples.
The
Romans Painted Fortitude in the Example of Horatius Cocles defending the Bridge (call’d Sublitius) against a great Troop of Tuscanes : and Marcus Marcellus, who by cutting of the Head of Britomarte a French Captain, Discomfitted the Enemies whole Army.
          For
Love to their Country, Marc. Curtius, who cast himself and Horse into a Bottomless Gulff : and the Three Decii the Father in the Roman Warr, the Son in the Tuscane and the Nephew in the Battle against Pyrrhus ; all which ran into certain and Eminent Death, for the good of their Country.
           And for
Military Discipline, Posthumus the Dictator, who put his own Son to Death for getting a Conquest over his Enemies by breaking his Ranks ; with innumerable more Emblems of Divers Vertues and pieces of Gallantry.
           Certainly these Painted with a great
Spirit, Passion and Gracefull Action, must be more Instructive and Exciting then the most Rhetoricall Harangue.
           
It is the most Ingenuous Art, and greatly assisting to Natural Philosophy ; since with the greatest Scrutiny it examines into the very Entity of Nature.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Quotation

We will only observe further the different Idea given by the Painter, and the Poet [ndr : dans Poussin, Tancrède et Herminie et le Tasse, dans le passage de la Jérusalem céleste s’y rapportant]. A Reader of Tasso that thought less finely than Poussin would form in his Imagination a Picture, but not Such a one as This. He would see a Man of a less Lovely, and Beautiful Aspect, Pale, and all cut, and mangled, his Body, and Garments smear’d with Blood : He would see Erminia, not such a one as Poussin has made her ; and a thousand to one with a pair of Scissars in her hand, but certainly not with Tancred’s Sword : The two Amoretto’s would never enter into his Mind : Horses he would see, and let ‘em be the finest he had ever seen they would be less fine than These, and so of the rest. The Painter has made a finer Story than the Poet, tho’ his Readers were Equal to himself, but without all Comparison much finer than it can appear to the Generality of them. And he has moreover not only known how to make use of the Advantages This Art has over that of his Competitor, but in what it is Defective in the Comparison he has supply’d it with such Address that one cannot but rejoyce in the Defect which occasion’d such a Beautiful Expedient.

term translated by ART in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 54-55.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts

Quotation

That so Few here in England have consider’d that to be a Good Connoisseur is fit to be part of the Education of a Gentleman, That there are so Few Lovers of Painting ; not merely for Furniture, or for Ostentation, or as it Represents their Friends, or Themselves ; but as it is an Art capable of Entertaining, and Adorning their Minds As much as, nay perhaps More than Any other whatsoever ;

term translated by ART in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 116.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Quotation

I own there are Beauties in Nature which we cannot reach ; Chiefly in Colours, together with a certain Spirit ; Vivacity, and Lightness ; Motion alone is a Vast Advantage ; it occasions a great degree of Beauty purely from that Variety it gives ; so that what I have said elsewhere is true, ‘tis impossible to Reach Nature by Art ; But This is not inconsistent with what I have been saying just now ; Both are True in different Senses. We cannot reach what we set [ndr : une erreur est notée dans l’errata présent au début de l’ouvrage : il s’agit du verbe see et non du verbe set] before us, and attempt to Imitate, but we Can carry our Ideas, so far beyond what we have seen, that tho’ we fall short of executing them with our hands, what we do will nevertheless excel Common Nature, Especially in Some particulars, and those very considerable ones.
When I say Nature is to be Rais’d, and Improv’d by Painting it must be understood that the Actions of Men must be represented better than probably they Really were, as well as that their Persons must appear to be Nobler, and more Beautifull than is Ordinarily seen. In treating a History a Painter has Other Rules to go by than a Historian, whereby he is as much Oblig’d to Imbellish his Subject, as the other is to relate it Justly.

term translated by ART in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 123-124.

Conceptual field(s)

CONCEPTS ESTHETIQUES → nature, imitation et vrai

Quotation

By the help of this Art [ndr : la peinture] we have the Pleasure of seeing a vast Variety of Things and Actions, of travelling by Land or Water, of knowing the Humours of Low Life without mixing with it, of viewing Tempests, Battels, Inundations ; and, in short, of all Real or Imagin’d Appearances in Heaven, Earth, or Hell ;

term translated by ART in RICHARDSON, Jonathan, Traité de la Peinture, Par Mr. Richardson, le Père, Tomes I. et II. Contenant, Tome I. Un Essai sur la Théorie de la Peinture ; Tome II. Un Essai sur l'art de critiquer, en fait de Peinture ; & un Discours sur la Sience d'un Connoisseur. Traduit de l'Anglois; Revu & Corrigé par l'Auteur., trad. par RUTGERS, Antoine, Amsterdam, Herman Uytwerf, 1728, 2 vol., vol. I., p. 5.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture

Quotation

[…] we hope for Pardon, if in this Chapter we shall not keep so strictly within the Limits of this ART [ndr : la peinture] in particular, which we are forced sometime to entrench upon the Confines of some neighbour ARTS, relating to Sculpture and Engraving, and referring to the Invention of Letters, antick Images, Pillars, or Pagan Deities of old ; which now the Maturity of these latter Ages has so variously distinguished and diversified ; of all which, yet in a general Acceptation, we conceive PAINTING to be comprehensive and of near affinity to, and the introducing of which we can hardly judge any Extravagancy, but rather (as we shall briefly endeavour to make it appear) very applicable and consonent to our Deposition in hand.
FOR Pictura and Sculptura, in the Sence of the Poets, were accounted Twins ; and as that Worthy Author M. Evelyn, joying with them Architectura, declares those Three illustrious and magnificent ARTS so dependent upon each other, that they can no more be separated than the very Graces themselves, who are always represented to us holding Hand in Hand, and mutually regarding one another ; we may reasonably conjecture that they were born together ; or however, that the Emergency, or Rise of the one was not long previous to the Invention of the other.
FOR if we take
Pictura in a general Acceptation, and according to the Definition of Vitruvius, viz. Fit Imago ejus quod est seu esse potest : It may be comprehensive of not only Painting but Sculpture, Plastick and Mosaick Work, or any other Counterfeit, or Similitude, of any created, or imaginary Being whatsoever ; and so makes no essential Difference at all between them, but only ratione materia, which is only in the Mechanick and less noble Part of the ART, they agreeing notwithstanding in the Essentials, the more liberal and refined Accomplishments of it.
BUT yet this is not all that
de facto, there is such Affinity and Similitude between these TWO ARTS ; but we may affirm ‘tis the Excellency also, and mutual Perfection of each other to be so : For as Sir H. Wotton takes notice out of Pliny {Elements of Architecture}, where designing to distinguish, he handsomly interweaves them together to our Purpose, saying, That Picture is best when it standeth off as if it were carved ; and Sulpture is best when it appeareth so tender as if it were painted.
AND once more to urge the entire Connection of these TWO ARTS together, we dare with Confidence enough affirm, whereever we find a compleat ARTIST in Sculpture, he must also have a competent Talent of Knowledge in PAINTING ; and particularly more than meanly skilled in the ART of ready Drawing and Designing, and have a sufficient Knowledge of the Nature and Effect of Light and Shadows, which small Commencements, perhaps, made up the compleat Character of not a few of the antient Heroes, whom Pliny does so studiously, yet not undeservedly celebrate.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture
PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → comparaison entre les arts

Quotation

Our poor and needy Life perceiving some casual Things to fall out prosperously, whilst it doth mistake and try, whilst it doth slip, reform and change ; hath out of this same assiduous Reprehension made up small Sciences of ARTS, the which it hath afterwards, by a continual Study, brought to some considerable Degree of Perfection. And therefore Ælian says, so Rude and Imperfect were the first Attemps of this ART, that to avoid the Danger of a Mistake, they were wont constantly to affix to their Works such a clear and discerning Character of distinction, as this is a Horse, an Ox, or a Tree, &c. And what higher Expectations can we derive from a Portrait, or Profile of a Face drawn from the Shadow upon a Wall ; or when we find Gyges, whom Pliny sometime calls the first Painter, born in Lydia, which, as he says, was Tuscania, went into Egypt, found out the ART there, and all his Skill arrived only to some competency of Design, probably with a Coal, or some such coarse Material. From which Sort of Picture they advanced not much further, ‘till some competent Time after, came Polignotus, the first that painted Encaustice, or by Fire ; which was not enameling on Gold, but with hot glowing Irons, to draw, or cast their Design into Wood, or Ivory, and possibly to finish with some slight Shadowing within ; for before that, as Carel van Mander, in his Lives of the Painters observes, the First Pictures were only drawn, and consisted of Out-Lines only, and therefore called Linearis Pictura.
THE next Step they advanced was by the Invention of Cleanthes and Thelephanes, who super-added some Finishing within, and filled their Out-Lines with one Colour, which was only a Piece of Red Potsheard, pounded and fine ground ; First found out, and, as some affirm, us’d by Callias the Athenian.
AND thence, […], they were called
Monocromata ; and to the Assistance of these came Higienontes, Dinias and Charmas, who also made Faces with one Colour only.

Conceptual field(s)

PEINTURE, TABLEAU, IMAGE → définition de la peinture